Bulimia is an eating disorder and mental health condition.
People who have bulimia go through periods where they eat a lot of food in a very short amount of time (binge eating) and then are deliberately sick, use laxatives (medication to help them poo) or do excessive exercise, or a combination of these, to try to stop themselves gaining weight.
Men and women of any age can get bulimia, but it's most common in young women and typically starts in the mid-to-late teens.
Symptoms of bulimia
Symptoms of bulimia include:
- eating very large amounts of food in a short time, often in an out-of-control way – this is called binge eating
- making yourself vomit, using laxatives or doing an extreme amount of exercise after a binge to avoid putting on weight – this is called purging
- fear of putting on weight
- being very critical about your weight and body shape
- mood changes – for example, feeling very tense or anxious
These symptoms may not be easy to spot in someone else because bulimia can make people behave very secretively.
Read more about the symptoms of bulimia and warning signs in others.
Getting help for bulimia
Getting help and support as soon as possible gives you the best chance of recovering from bulimia.
If you think you may have bulimia, see your GP as soon as you can.
They will ask you questions about your eating habits and how you're feeling, and will check your overall health and weight.
If they think you may have bulimia, or another eating disorder, they should refer you to an eating disorder specialist or team of specialists.
It can be very hard to admit you have a problem and to ask for help. It may make things easier if you bring a friend or loved one with you to your appointment.
You can also talk in confidence to an adviser from eating disorders charity Beat by calling its adult helpline on 0808 801 0677 or youth helpline on 0808 801 0711.
Getting help for someone else
If you're concerned that a family member or friend may have bulimia, let them know you're worried about them and encourage them to see their GP. You could offer to go along with them.
Read more about talking to your child about eating disorders and supporting someone with an eating disorder.
Treatment for bulimia
You can recover from bulimia, but it may take time and recovery will be different for everyone.
Your treatment plan will be tailored to you and should take into account any other support you might need, such as for depression or anxiety.
If you are over 18, you will probably be offered a guided self-help programme. This involves working through a self-help book, and often includes keeping a diary and making a plan for your meals. You will be supported by a therapist during this process. You may also be offered cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).
If you are under 18, you may be offered family therapy as well as CBT.
Read more about the treatments for bulimia.
Health risks of bulimia
Bulimia can eventually lead to physical problems associated with not getting the right nutrients, vomiting a lot or overusing laxatives.
Possible complications include:
- feeling tired and weak
- dental problems – stomach acid from persistent vomiting can damage tooth enamel and also cause bad breath, a sore throat or even tears in the lining of the throat
- irregular or absent periods
- dry skin and hair
- brittle fingernails
- swollen glands
- fits and muscle spasms
- heart, kidney or bowel problems, including permanent constipation
- bone problems – you may be more likely to develop issues problems such as osteoporosis, particularly if you have had symptoms of both bulimia and anorexia
Causes of bulimia
We don't know exactly what causes bulimia and other eating disorders. You may be more likely to get an eating disorder if:
- you or a member of your family has a history of eating disorders, depression, or alcohol or drug addiction
- you have been criticised for your eating habits, body shape or weight
- you are overly concerned with being slim, particularly if combined with societal pressure to be slim or from your job – for example, ballet dancers, jockeys, models or athletes
- you have anxiety, low self-esteem, an obsessive personality or are a perfectionist
- you have been sexually abused
Bulimia is often a vicious cycle of binging and purging, triggered by things such as hunger, sadness or stress.
You may set very strict rules for yourself about dieting, eating or exercising. Failing to keep to these then leads to periods of excessive eating and loss of control (binge eating), after which you feel guilty or ashamed. You then purge to get rid of the calories, leaving you feeling hungry again, and the cycle continues.